Thursday, March 14, 2013

It is human nature to seek acclaim and recognition. Given the choice, most people would rather be well known and respected than an obscure outsider who is unimportant and ignored. Typically, this basic need is satisfied in socially acceptable ways. Some people excel in school, sports, or the arts. Others may perceive themselves as being a really good parent or spouse. Still others strive to be outstanding employees or civic leaders. There are individuals, however, who are unable to satisfy this basic human drive through socially acceptable behavior (or have an insatiable need to prove their superiority). Some of them become esteem-motivated offenders.
Most crimes make sense to the average person. A man loses his job and is threatened with eviction, so he robs a convenience store to pay his rent. Another man kills his wife during a heated argument. While we know that these acts are illegal and wrong, at least the motives are understandable. This is often not the case with esteem-motivated crimes, which include a wide range of behavior ranging from false claims of rape and con games to sexual molestation, product tampering and arson.
Esteem- motivated crimes are committed to elevate the suspectis self worth. Through his criminal behavior the suspect demonstrates superior power, influence, intelligence or skill over his victim which may be a person, a company or agency, or even society as a whole. The crime may reap financial or revenge gains, but the primary drive is to elevate the suspectis deflated esteem. John Wilkes Booth, for example, did not hate Abraham Lincoln or his policies. He assassinated Lincoln so that he would be remembered in history as someone who killed an important person.
Characteristics of Crimes
One characteristic of an esteem-motivated crime is that the offender uses stealth, ingenuity, or cunning to accomplish his goal. To obtain a password into a government computer database, an employee could be tortured to reveal the password. But obtaining the password is not the goal for the esteem-motivated offender. Demonstrating his superior intellect by cleverly hacking into the system is his goal.
Manipulation of the victim is very common, e.g., a rapist talking his way into the victimis apartment or the child molester telling the victim to keep their activity a secret. The arsonist may start a small fire to cause the building to be evacuated and feel powerful as he realizes it was his action that caused the emergency vehicles to arrive. A good indication that a crime was esteem-motivated is that the victim is left feeling foolish, e.g., iWhy didnit we use a more sophisticated security system?i; iWhy did I let him in my apartment?i; iWhy did I believe that guy was a police officer?i iWhy did I let my boss harass me in that way?i
Esteem-motivated crimes often escalate over time. In the beginning, it may have been sufficient for the offender to meet a child in a chat room and persuade the child to reveal information about her body. Eventually, this activity is no longer a challenge or psychologically rewarding, so the offender attempts to obtain pictures of the child and then to eventually meet her in person. Esteem- motivated crimes often come to the attention of authorities after they have escalated to criminal behavior. These offenders may become violent in their late-stage behaviors, e.g., pulling fire alarms escalates to calling in bomb threats which escalates to planting actual bombs.
An exception to the foregoing characteristic is the person who experiences a situational loss of esteem or self-worth. This may be from losing a job, breaking off a relationship, failing in school or having an upcoming stressful event such as a court trial or wedding. Under this circumstance, the suspect may be a one-time offender. A good example of this is the suspect who makes up a story about being the victim of a crime (abduction, rape, robbery, arson) to seek attention or emotional support from loved ones. 
Esteem-motivated offenders generally act alone. Their crimes typically do not require an accomplice and the offender does not want to share the glory or power with another person. However, sometimes the esteem is derived from manipulating a person into joining the offender in illegal activity. John Allen Muhammad, the DC sniper, recruited a younger man to participate in the sniper activity. His feeling of power was derived not only from deciding who would live or die, but also in manipulating the accomplice.
Characteristics of Offenders
While esteem motivated offenders obviously have an inadequate personality, with predominant features of paranoia and oversensitivity to criticism (real or perceived), these traits are often veiled within the suspectis persona. What is more likely to be apparent to the investigator is that these individuals have a normal to above normal intelligence, are long-range planners, and have good impulse control. 
While many of these offenders are reclusive and very private, others express high confidence and may interject themselves within the investigation by contacting the police or media. Sometimes the offender will leave an obvious clue or isignaturei at the crime scene to make certain the offender receives proper credit for the act.

Sunday, March 10, 2013

The Philanthropy Channel

The Philanthropy Channel Venture Philanthropy Partners The Value of Family Philanthropy in a Democracy

Tuesday, March 5, 2013

The Society for Ethnomusicologist/Societies and Organizations

societies and organizations
American Anthropological Association (AAA): The world's largest professional organization of individuals interested in anthropology.
American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS): A private non-profit federation of scholarly organizations whose mission is the advancement of humanistic studies in all fields of learning in the humanities and the social sciences and the maintenance and strengthening of relations among the national societies devoted to such studies.
American Folklore Society (AFS): An association of people who create and communicate knowledge about folklore.
American Musicological Society (AMS): A non-profit organization founded to advance research in the various fields of music as a branch of learning and scholarship.
Association for Recorded Sound Collections (ARSC): A non-profit organization dedicated to research, study, publication, and information exchange surrounding all aspects of recordings and recorded sound.
Ateliers d'ethnomusicologie: An organization which promotes the study of ethnomusicology through publications, concerts, and recordings.
British Forum for Ethnomusicology (BFE): A UK society devoted to the study of music and dance from all parts of the world.
Canadian Society for Traditional Music: A society dedicated to the study and promotion of musical traditions of all communities and cultures, in all their aspects.
Christian Musicological Society of India: A forum for interdisciplinary research, discussion, and dissemination of knowledge, on music & dance and Christianity in India.
CID - UNESCO's International Dance Council: Le CID représente les intérêts du monde de la danse en agissant comme un forum à l’échelle mondiale qui rassemble aussi bien les organisations internationales, nationales et régionales que toutes les personnes oeuvrant dans le domaine de la danse.
College Music Society (CMS): A consortium of college, conservatory, university, and independent musicians and scholars interested in all disciplines of music.
Council on Library and Information Resources (CLIR): An independent, nonprofit organization. Through projects, programs, and publications, CLIR works to maintain and improve access to information for generations to come.
Cross-Cultural Dance Resources (CCDR): A non-profit organization dedicated to research about dance. Cross-Cultural Dance Resources, Inc. supports many areas of dance and programs include research and consultation, performance events, discussions, and the book Half a Century of Dance Research: Essays by Gertrude Prokosch Kurath.
European Foundation For Chinese Music Research (CHIME): A foundation for the promotion of Chinese music research, based in Leiden, the Netherlands. It was founded early in 1990 by European music scholars from four different countries. CHIME serves as an active world-wide network of researchers of Chinese music.
European Meetings in Ethnomusicology: Information and table of contents for this journal which is a refereed academic editorial series treating the musical traditions and socio-cultural connections or associations with music that were formerly, or traditionally, summoned under the name of folk music (and/or musical folklore).
European Seminar in Ethnomusicology (ESEM): ESEM is a platform for professional scholars and advanced students in ethnomusicology.
Freemuse: The world forum on music and censorship.
Galpin Society for the Study of Musical Instruments: A society which supports original research into the history, construction, development and use of musical instruments.
International Association for the Study of Popular Music (IASPM): An international organization established to promote inquiry, scholarship and analysis in the area of Popular Music.
International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives: Established in Amsterdam to function as a medium for international co-operation between archives that preserve recorded sound and audiovisual documents. Members represent a broad palette of audiovisual archives which are distinguished by their focus on particular subjects and areas: e.g. archives for all sorts of musical recordings, historic, literary, folkloric and ethnological sound documents, theatre productions and oral history interviews, bio-acoustic, environmental and medical sounds, linguistic and dialect recordings as well as those for forensic purposes.
International Council for Traditional Music (ICTM): An international organization to further the study, practice, documentation, preservation and dissemination of traditional music, including folk, popular, classical and urban music, and dance of all countries.
International Native American Flute Association: An Association which supports and promotes various aspects of Native American flute performance and research.
Korean Musicological Society: The aims of the KMS are to further the study, practice, documentation, preservation and dissemination of Korean traditional music.
Music Library Association (MLA): The professional organization in the United States devoted to music librarianship and to all aspects of music materials in libraries.
Oral History Association: An association devoted to oral history as a way of collecting human memories.
Performance Studies International: An international organization that promotes communication and exchange between scholars and practitioners working in the field of performance.
Royal Musical Association: British organization for the study of any kind of music, from history, analysis, and ethnomusicology to studies of perception, reception, and practice-led research.
Sociedad de Etnomusicologia (SIbE): Agrupa a más de un centenar de investigadores dedicados al estudio de la música en su contexto cultural. Entre sus socios se encuentran académicos, profesores, educadores, profesionales e instituciones de conservación y difusión del patrimonio musical, así como amigos de la música tradicional y popular.
Society for American Music (SAM): A society devoted to stimulate the appreciation, performance, creation and study of American music in all its diversity, and the full range of activities and institutions associated with that music.
Society for Asian Music: A not-for-profit educational organization that publishes the Journal of the Society for Asian Music.
Society for Music Theory (SMT): Established to promote music theory as both a scholarly and a pedagogical discipline.
Society for Musicology in Ireland: The Society seeks to provide a forum for the practice of musicology which reflects the gamut of musical research in Ireland, notably in ethnomusicology, historical musicology, analysis, performance practice, textual criticism, archival research, organology, cultural and social history and critical discourse.
South African Society for Research in Music: The former Musicological Society of Southern Africa and the Symposium on Ethnomusicology combined in 2006, and now produce SAMUS, the journal South African Music Studies. 
The Congress on Research in Dance (CORD): The Congress On Research in Dance is a not-for-profit, interdisciplinary organization with an open, international membership. Its purposes are to encourage research in all aspects of dance, including related fields, to foster the exchange of ideas, resources, and methodology, through publication, international and regional conferences, and workshops, and to promote the accessibility of research materials.
The English Folk Song and Dance Society: A society dedicated to preserve English folk dances and songs and other folk music, to make them known and to encourage the practice of them in their traditional form.
The Society for Arab Music Research (SAMR): Website with information about this special interest group of the Society for Ethnomusicology. A Resource for the Traditional Music of the Arabs.
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO): UNESCO works as a laboratory of ideas and a standard-setter to forge universal agreements on emerging ethical issues. The Organization also serves as a clearinghouse--that disseminates and shares information and knowledge--while helping Member States to build their human and institutional capacities in diverse fields, promoting international co-operation among its Member States and Associate Members in the fields of education, science, culture and communication.
World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO): An international organization dedicated to promoting the use and protection of works of the human spirit. These works -- intellectual property -- are expanding the bounds of science and technology and enriching the world of the arts.
World Music Institute: An organization that encourages cultural exchange between nations and ethnic groups, supports traditional music by providing opportunities for visiting and for local artists, presents to the American public the finest in traditional and contemporary music and dance from around the world, and collaborates with community organizations and academic institutions in fostering greater understanding of the world's music and dance traditions.

Like many other academic societies, SEM believes that it should address issues that impact the study of ethnomusicology, our membership, and the people with whom we work. The guidelines described below are to be used by SEM members in order to bring issues to the attention of the SEM Board and the rest of the Society.

Guidelines for SEM Position Statements
Revised by the SEM Board of Directors on May 14, 2012
The Society may issue position statements that take a public stand on matters of direct relevance to ethnomusicology and to the Society. We hold that it is our responsibility as scholars and educators to lead the way in the development of ethnomusicology, its professional standards, and the safety and wellbeing of ethnomusicologists and the people with whom they work.
In the past, the Society has taken positions on a number of matters directly and deeply relevant to ethnomusicology and ethnomusicologists. For example, the Statement on Ethical Considerations was drafted by the Ethics Committee and ratified by the Board (1998); the Board formally asked then-President Bush to intervene in the imprisonment of Tibetan ethnomusicologist Ngawang Choephel as a humanitarian gesture (2001); and the Board sent a letter to President Bush and Secretary of State Colin Powell protesting restrictive Homeland Security measures that prevented artists from obtaining visas to visit the U.S. (2002).
In the future, the following procedures should be followed in proposing, drafting, and ratifying SEM Position Statements:
  1. Position statements may be proposed by any member of the Society, as well as by the formal bodies of the Society, such as the SEM Board, the SEM Council, standing committees, sections, and special interest groups.
  2. Originated by any group or person, position statements must be submitted in a fully crafted, written form to the Board.
  3. The Board will consider the proposed statement, revising it if necessary. If the Board feels that the document has the potential to be adopted as an official Position Statement of the Society, the Board will refer the document to the Council for a recommendation.
  4. The Council will discuss the statement, either in person at their annual meeting or via electronic means. After their discussion, the Council must vote to indicate their recommendations to the Board. In most cases, the Council will make a recommendation to the Board to approve or reject the statement. At least 60% of the members of the Council must vote in favor of approval for the Board to consider the statement as having received a positive recommendation.
  5. On rare occasions, the Council may choose to vote on the question of whether or not the proposed statement should be decided by a referendum of the general membership. At least 60% of the members of the Council must vote in favor of holding a general referendum for the Board to consider that option as the Council’s recommendation.
  6. After receiving the Council’s recommendation, the Board will then decide to approve the statement, reject the statement, revise it for further consideration, or hold a referendum of the membership. (If a referendum is held, 60% of the votes cast by the membership must be in favor of adopting the document for it to become a Position Statement of the Society.)
  7. All position statements that have been approved (either by Board vote or by referendum) will be published in the Newsletter and on the SEM website and will constitute part of the historical record of the Society.



Cognitive psychology, neuroscience, anatomy, and similar fields have endeavored to understand how music relates to an individual’s perception, cognition, and behavior. This is a relatively new approach to the study of music. Research topics include pitch perception, representation and expectation, timbre perception, rhythmic processing, event hierarchies and reductions, musical performance and ability, musical universals, musical origins, music development, cross-cultural cognition, evolution, and more.
The perception of music has a quickly growing body of literature. Structurally, the auditory system is able to distinguish different pitches (sound waves of varying frequency) via the complementary vibrating of the eardrum. It can also parse incoming sound signals via pattern recognition mechanisms.[64] Cognitively, the brain is often constructionist when it comes to pitch. If one removes the fundamental pitch from a harmonic spectrum, the brain can still “hear” that missing fundamental and identify it through an attempt to reconstruct a coherent harmonic spectrum.[65]
Research suggests that much more is learned perception, however. Contrary to popular belief, absolute pitch is learned at a critical age, or for a familiar timbre only.[66][67] Debate still occurs over whether Western chords are naturally consonant or dissonant, or whether that ascription is learned.[68][69] Relation of pitch to frequency is a universal phenomenon, but scale construction is culturally specific.[70] Training in a cultural scale results in melodic and harmonic expectations.[71]Expectations of timbre are also learned based on past correlations.[72]
Researchers have also attempted to use psychological and biological principles to understand more complex musical phenomena such as performance behavior or the evolution of music, but have reached few consensuses in these areas. It is generally accepted that errors in performance give insight into perception of a music’s structure, but these studies are restricted to Western score-reading tradition thus far.[73] Currently there are several theories to explain the evolution of music – that it piggy-backed on the ability to produce language, evolved to enable and promote social interaction,[74] evolved to increase efficiency of vocal communication over long distances, or enabled communication with the supernatural.[75]